Some countries have approved no-touch technologies for applying chemical disinfectants (e.g. vaporized hydrogen peroxide) in health-care settings such as fogging-type applications.42 Furthermore, devices using UV irradiation have been designed for health-care settings. However, several factors may affect the efficacy of UV irradiation, including distance from the UV device; irradiation dose, wavelength and exposure time; lamp placement; lamp age; and duration of use. Other factors include direct or indirect line of sight from the device; room size and shape; intensity; and reflection.5 Notably, these technologies developed for use in health-care settings are used during terminal cleaning (cleaning a room after a patient has been discharged or transferred), when rooms are unoccupied for the safety of staff and patients. These technologies supplement but do not replace the need for manual cleaning procedures.44 If using a no-touch disinfection technology, environmental surfaces must be cleaned manually first by brushing or scrubbing to remove organic matter.